# Calculate Metrics across Columns

You can use a variety of mathematical and statistical functions to calculate metrics within a column.

To calculate metrics across columns, you can use a generalized version of the following example.

Source:

Your dataset tracks swimmer performance across multiple heats in a race, and you would like to calculate best, worst, and average times in seconds across all three heats. Here's the data:

Racer

Heat1

Heat2

Heat3

Racer X

37.22

38.22

37.61

Racer Y

41.33

DQ

38.04

Racer Z

39.27

39.04

38.85

In the above data, Racer Y was disqualified (DQ) in Heat 2.

Transformation:

To compute the metrics, you must bundle the data into an array, break out the array into separate rows, and then calculate your metrics by grouping. Here are the steps:

1. When the data is imported, you may need to create a header for each row:

 Transformation Name Rename columns with a row Use row as header 1
2. The columns containing heat time data may need to be retyped. From the drop-down next to each column name, select Decimal type.

3. The DQ value in the Heat2 column is invalid data for Decimal type. You can use the following transformation to turn it into a missing value. For purposes of calculating averages, you may or may not want to turn invalid data into zeroes or blanks. In this case, replacing the data as0.00causes improper calculations for the metrics.

 Transformation Name Replace text or patterns Heat2 'DQ' ''
4. Use the following to gather all of the heat data into two columns:

 Transformation Name Unpivot columns Heat1,Heat2,Heat3 1
5. You can now rename the two columns. Rename key to HeatNum and value to HeatTime.

6. You may want to delete the rows that have a missing value for HeatTime:

 Transformation Name Delete rows ISMISSING([value])
7. You can now perform calculations on this column. The following transformations calculate minimum, average (mean), and maximum times for each racer:

 Transformation Name New formula Multiple row formula MIN(HeatTime) Racer 'BestTime'
 Transformation Name New formula Multiple row formula AVERAGE(HeatTime) Racer 'AvgTime'
 Transformation Name New formula Multiple row formula MAX(HeatTime) Racer 'WorstTime'
8. To make the data look better, you might want to reformat the values in the AvgTime column to two decimal points:

 Transformation Name Edit column with formula AvgTime NUMFORMAT(AvgTime, '##.00')

Results:

After you use the Move transformation to re-organize your columns, the dataset should look like the following:

Racer

HeatNum

HeatTime

BestTime

WorstTime

AvgTime

Racer X

Heat1

37.22

37.22

38.22

37.68

Racer X

Heat2

38.22

37.22

38.22

37.68

Racer X

Heat3

37.61

37.22

38.22

37.68

Racer Y

Heat1

41.33

38.04

41.33

39.69

Racer Y

Heat3

38.04

38.04

41.33

39.69

Racer Z

Heat1

39.27

38.85

39.27

39.05

Racer Z

Heat2

39.04

38.85

39.27

39.05

Racer Z

Heat3

38.85

38.85

39.27

39.05